"Art is not subject to political games, its importance elevates it above any racial difference. All men of talent, of noble spirit can make it. All great artists can only do what they esteem to be right. No matter how it appears at first, it will always be beautiful. I'm still trying to paint that painting...I'm never satisfied with my paintings - but I'm less satisfied with everybody else. I'm a sum total of my experiences at this point. My art would look different now if I hadn't gone to Paris. I'm not saying this is good or bad. But it would be different. The experience of Paris is still with me. Paris was the...freest of cities and a true magnet for artists. We would meet among artists of all countries, with no distinction of class, race or political ideology. We were artists, nothing else."
Ed Clark, Broom Pusher
Edward Clark “Ed Clark” is an African American abstract expressionist painter and one of the early experimenters with shaped canvas in the 1950s. Clark is an American color field painter whose style was shaped by the years he spent in Paris in the early 1950s. As an African-American who had been raised in the segregated South, Clark found Paris tolerant, and the atmosphere encouraging, and, while there, he developed a sophisticated abstract style that was markedly influenced by the tachist painter Nicolas de Stael. His early work is remembered for his "push-broom technique," which encouraged his full physical involvement in painting. He is also noted for the monumental scale of his work, and the fact that he is one of the first painters to have used shaped canvases.
Edward Clark was born in the Storyville section of New Orleans, Louisiana, on May 6, 1926. When he was six, his parents Merion and Edward Sr., moved their family to Baton Rouge where they lived in a shotgun house with his father's great aunt. At this time, Clark began his elementary schooling, where he was first exposed to drawing. On one occasion, a nun at his Catholic school issued a challenge to Clark and his classmates: whoever could produce the best tree drawing would receive a gold star. Taking up the challenge, Clark won acknowledgement from his teachers for his artistic abilities as well as the gold star, and this experience awakened in Clark the desire to become an artist.
Two years later, Clark's family relocated north to Chicago. In 1943, at the age of 17, he left high school and enlisted in the air force during the height of World War II. He was stationed for two years in the South Pacific and returned to Chicago upon his release.
Ed Clark, Self Portrait
In 1947, with the aid of the GI Bill, Clark enrolled in the Art Institute of Chicago where he studied with painter Louis Ritman. In 1952, he left Chicago and moved to Paris. As an African-American, this period abroad was pivotal for his development because it allowed for opportunities and experiences that segregation had made unavailable to him in the United States. Once in Paris, he attended the prestigious L’Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and studied with Edouard Goerg and Ossip Zadkine. Clark appreciated the relaxed, workshop environment of the Chaumière - in comparison to what he viewed as the formal and often stifling approach of the Art Institute of Chicago. And, in addition to his training at the Chaumière, he was also exposed to a multitude of artists and movements, including the CoBrA group (Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam) and the gestural abstraction of L'Art Informelle. He was especially influenced by the abstractions and thickly impastoed canvases of Russian-born artist Nicolas de Stael, in particular, Stael’s painting of “The Footballers”. From de Stael, Clark adopted the application of bright colors in densely packed, block-like forms. The resulting works were characterized by forms, which seem to be arranged so as to echo one another.
Ed Clark, In his studio
In 1953, Clark's financial support from the GI Bill ended but he decided to remain in Paris rather than return to the United States, despite the likelihood of financial hardship. Paris, for Clark, represented a space of social and artistic freedom that was unattainable in the United States where racism prevailed and black art and artists were primarily confined to exhibiting their works in libraries and community centers - spaces that were inferior to the mainstream art galleries. On this, Clark has stated, "Paris was the...freest of cities and a true magnet for artists. We would meet among artists of all countries, with no distinction of class, race or political ideology. We were artists, nothing else."
While in Paris, Clark shared studio space and also lived intermittently with several other American expatriate artists, including Herbert Gentry and Joan Mitchell. While he would return to Paris many times throughout his life, during this period Clark not only embraced abstraction but also began painting on a monumental scale. After experiencing difficulties in finding paintbrushes that could accommodate his work, he created the so-called "push-broom technique," in which he repurposed a janitor's push broom as a paintbrush, which allowed him to paint large surfaces easily. Like Jackson Pollock, Clark would lay his canvas on the floor and spontaneously pour paint onto it. He would then perform what he termed "the big sweep," which involved him pushing the broom in an accelerated manner that would create bold, broad strokes while adding a sense of speedy and dynamic action to his gestures. These works are characterized by large fields dominated by few colors (usually three distinct hues) that are rendered in an all-over manner as such they have a great similarity to the works of Mark Rothko and Franz Kline.
Clark received critical acclaim in France and was lauded by Michel Concil-Lecoste, a critic at the journal Le Monde. In 1953, critic and curator Michel Tapie included Clark in an exhibition of American artists living in France, making Clark the only African American to be included in the exhibition, which was held at the Galerie Craven. His paintings were also exhibited at several major Parisian galleries including Galerie Creuze, Galerie Maeght and Galerie Huit. And he was included in Michel Seuphor's 1957 publication Dictionnaire de la Peinture Abstraite.
In 1957, Clark returned to the United States and settled in New York City, where he became a charter member of the Brata Gallery, a small art cooperative that was located on 10th Street. Several other second-generation Abstract Expressionists were also affiliated with the gallery, including George Sugarmen, Al Held, Sal Romano, and Nicholas Krushenick. At this time Clark began experimenting with "shaped" paintings. At first this process was forced upon him due to financial problems. He began to paint on paper with the intention to return to the canvas when he was more financially secure. But after returning to canvas, he added paper to the surface in a way that caused it to stretch over the side of the canvas and hang limp. As a corrective, Clark built an armature under the paper as a support. Consequently, these "shapes" became painting and collage as well as sculpture.
Clark returned to Paris in 1966 and remained there until 1969. In 1966 he had a one-man show at Galerie Creuze, where Art International reviewer R.C Kennedy described his brushstrokes paintings as aggressive and violent. During this time, Clark began producing oval shaped paintings, which he saw as a continuation of his experiments with shape. By moving toward a more circular form, he sought to incorporate perception by mimicking the shape of the eye. In the 1970s Clark further evolved this concept with the creation of elliptical-shaped works.
In the 1970s Clark began to travel extensively - to Greece, Nigeria, Mexico, Brazil, and China - incorporating the colors and experiences of journeys into his painting. In addition to shifts in his color palette during the course of his career, Clark has also experimented with line and form. Much of his work during his early period maintained a strong horizontality that was congruent with the push of his broom. But in the 1980s he abandoned his three-unit color fields for tubular forms that are curved and multi-directional - a contrast to the static color fields of the 1950s. In the 1990s and the 2000s he began relying on vertical strokes combined with floating masses of color that intermingled with one another across the picture plane, resulting in monumental abstract compositions that reflect his entire career of experimentation with color, form, and line.
Clark currently lives and works in New York City and returns to Paris often. In addition to his many other accomplishments, he also appears in the Melvin van Peebles film Story of a Three-Day Pass (1967), and painted a mural inside the plane of the late Reginald Lewis, one of the first black CEO of a fortune 500 company and the owner of Beatrice Foods. Throughout the course of his career Clark has fought to remain relevant and is constantly evolving his style in order to do so.
Selected Solo Exhibitions
Edward Clark returned to New York in 1956. He and Ted Jones (painter) were the first Afro-Americans that actively participated in the New York Tenth Street galleries. Clark had his first one-man show in 1958 in the Brata Gallery. After the show he soon returned to Paris where he continued to show.
Clark is the first Afro-American painter credited with working on a shaped canvas, an innovation that influenced contemporary art through the 1950s and 1960s. He is also known for his powerful brush stroke achieved with a push broom, large-scale canvases, and his vibrant use of color. He arrives in Paris each summer and returns to New York City. He had number of well-received exhibitions in both continents.
- 1971: Donald Judd's Loft, New York City
- 1972: Lehman College, New York, NY; 141 Prince Street Gallery, New York City; Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI
- 1974: South Houston, Gallery, NYC
- 1975: James Yu Gallery, NYC
- 1976: Sullivant Gallery, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
- 1981: Citicorp Center, NYC
- 1986: "Paris to New York, 1966-1986," G.R.N'Namdi Gallery, Birmingham, MI
- 1989: Galerie Kasser-Bohbot, Hamburg, Germany
- 1990: FIAC, Grand Palais, Paris, France; G.R.N'Namdi Gallery, Birmingham, MI
Museums and Collections
Ed Clark’s paintings are included in the permanent collections of The Art Institute of Chicago; the Detroit Institute of Arts in Detroit, Michigan; the Studio Museum in Harlem in New York, New York; the Metropolitan Museum in New York, NY; the Museum of Modern Art in New York, NY; the California Afro-American Museum in Los Angeles, California, the Kresge Art Museum at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan; the James E. Lewis Museum of Art at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland; the Museum of Solidarity in Titograd, Yugoslavia; the Museum of Modern Art in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the Centro de Arte Moderno in Guadalajara, Mexico; and The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota, Florida, among others.
Great African American painters brought to you by Paris-based black artist Ealy Mays
REFERENCES / SOURCES / LINKS
- Pattan, S. F. (1998) African American Art, New York: Oxford University Press
- American abstract expressionism of the 1950s: an illustrated survey: with artists' statements, artwork and biographies. p.81."
- Some original content written by The Art Story Contributors
- Forms of Abstraction G.R. N'Namdi Gallery 1991
- ‘’The Paris connections: African American artists in Paris’’ ISBN Kenkeleba Gallery (New York, N.Y.), The search for freedom : African American abstract painting 1945-1975 : May 19-July 14, 1991, Kenkeleba Gallery, New York.
- Asake Bomani and Belvie Rooks, ‘’The Paris connections : African American artists in Paris’’ ISBN 0-936609-25-7, 0-936609-25-7
- "The Joyful, Visionary Art of Ed Clark by Geoffrey Jacques, Black Renaissance (2007)". Black Renaissance. 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- Marika herskovic, American abstract expressionism of the 1950s: an illustrated survey: with artists' statements, artwork and biographies ISBN 0-9677994-1-4. p. 78-81