Phillis Wheatley (May 8, 1753 – December 5, 1784) was the first African-American poet and first African-American woman to publish her writing. Born May 8, 1753 in West Africa, likely in Gambia or Senegal (Senegambia), she was sold into slavery at the age of 7 or 8 and transported to North America. She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write, and encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent.
The publication of Wheatley's “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral” (1773) brought her fame, both in England, and the Thirteen Colonies; figures such as George Washington praised her work. During Wheatley's visit to England with her master's son, the African-American poet Jupiter Hammon praised her work in his own poem. Wheatley was emancipated after the death of her master John Wheatley. She married soon after and she and her husband lost two children as infants. After he was imprisoned for debt in 1784, Wheatley fell into poverty and died of illness. This was quickly followed by the death of her surviving infant son.
Phillis Wheatley's church, Old South Meeting House
Although the date and place of her birth are not documented, scholars believe that Phillis Wheatley was born in 1753 in West Africa, most likely in present-day Gambia or Senegal. Wheatley was brought to British-ruled Boston, Massachusetts on July 11, 1761, on a slave ship called “The Phillis”. It was owned by Timothy Fitch and captained by Peter Gwinn.
At the age of eight, she was sold to the wealthy Bostonian merchant and tailor John Wheatley, who bought the young girl as a servant for his wife Susanna. John and Susanna Wheatley named the young girl Phillis, after the ship that had brought her to America. She was given their last name of Wheatley, as was a common custom if and when any surnames were used for slaves.
The Wheatley’s fifteen-year-old daughter Mary first tutored Phillis in reading and writing and their son Nathaniel also helped her as well. John Wheatley was viewed as a progressive throughout New England, and his family gave Phillis an unprecedented education for an enslaved person, and furthermore for a female of any race. By the age of twelve, Phillis was reading Greek and Latin classics as well as difficult passages from the Bible. Recognizing her literary ability, the Wheatley family supported Phillis’ education and left the household labor to their other domestic slaves. The Wheatleys often showed off Phillis' abilities to friends and family. Strongly influenced by her studies of the works of Alexander Pope, John Milton, Homer, Horace and Virgil, Phillis Wheatley began to write poetry.
Sculpture of Phillis Wheatley, Boston Women's Memorial (Meredith Bergmann sculptor)
In 1773, the family had Phillis accompany their son Nathaniel Wheatley to London, in part for her health. She had an audience with the Lord Mayor of London as well as with other significant members of British society. An audience with King George II was arranged, but Phillis returned home beforehand. A collection of her poetry was published in London during this visit.
After her mistress, Mrs. Wheatley, died on October 18, 1773, Phillis was relieved of any domestic chores, but was not emancipated. In 1775, Phillis Wheatley published a poem celebrating George Washington, entitled, “To His Excellency, George Washington”. In 1776, Washington invited Wheatley to his home as thanks for the poem, and Thomas Paine republished the poem in the Pennsylvania Gazette after their meeting. Wheatley supported the American Revolution, but the war years saw a decline in publishing of poetry.
Phillis Wheatley, Poems on Various Subjects: Religious and Moral, London: A. Bell, 1773 (Rare Book and Special Collections Division)
In 1778, Wheatley was legally freed from the bonds of slavery by her master's will. His daughter Mary Wheatley died soon afterward. Three months later, Phillis Wheatly married John Peters, a free black grocer. They struggled with poor living conditions and the deaths of two infant children.
Wheatley wrote another volume of poetry but was unable to publish it because of her financial circumstances, the loss of patrons after her emancipation (often publication of books was based on gaining subscriptions for guaranteed sales beforehand), and the competition from the Revolutionary War. However, some of her poems that were to be published in that volume, were later published in pamphlets and newspapers.
Her husband John Peters was imprisoned for debt in 1784, leaving an impoverished Wheatley with a sickly infant son. She went to work as a scullery maid at a boarding house to support herself and child. Ironically, life had forced her into the kind of domestic labor that she had been free of while enslaved. Wheatley died on December 5, 1784, at age 31. Her infant son died three and a half hours after her death.
In 1768, Wheatley wrote "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty”, in which she praised George III for repealing the Stamp Act. As the American Revolution gained strength, Wheatley's writing turned to themes that expressed ideas of the rebellious colonists.
John Wheatley's grave in Granary Burying Ground. Phillis Wheatley's grave is unmarked
In 1770 Wheatley wrote a poetic tribute to the evangelist George Whitefield, which received widespread acclaim. Her poetry expressed Christian themes, and many poems were dedicated to famous figures. Over one-third consist of elegies, and the remainder were on religious, classical, and abstract themes. She seldom referred to her own life in her poems. One example of a poem on slavery is "On being brought from Africa to America":
Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to understand
That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew.
Some view our sable race with scornful eye,
"Their colour is a diabolic dye."
Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain,
May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.
Historians have commented on her reluctance to write about slavery. Perhaps it was because she had conflicting feelings about the institution. In the above poem, critics have said that she praises slavery because it brought her to Christianity. But, in another poem, she wrote that slavery was a cruel fate.
Many white colonists found it difficult to believe that an African slave was writing excellent poetry. Wheatley had to defend her authorship of her poetry in court in 1772. She was examined by a group of Boston luminaries, including John Erving, Reverend Charles Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of Massachusetts, and his lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver. They concluded she had written the poems ascribed to her and signed an attestation, which was included in the preface of her book of collected works: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, published in London in 1773. Publishers in Boston had declined to publish it, but her work was of great interest in London. There Selina, Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth acted as patrons to help Wheatley gain publication.
In 1778, the African-American poet Jupiter Hammon wrote an ode to Wheatley. He does not refer to himself in the poem, but by choosing Wheatley as a subject, he may have been acknowledging their common ethnicity.
Wheatley believed that the power of poetry was immeasurable. John C. Shields notes that her poetry did not simply reflect novels which she read but was based on her personal ideas and beliefs. Shields writes, "Wheatley had more in mind than simple conformity. It will be shown later that her allusions to the sun god and to the goddess of the morn, always appearing as they do here in close association with her quest for poetic inspiration, are of central importance to her." For example, her poem “Ode to Neptune” signifies her life in many ways. The language of the poem starts out shaky and chaotic but the mood is adventurous yet scary (reflecting much of her life experiences). By the end of the poem the language and attitude seems to generate an emotion of a calm peaceful journey that served of great importance. This poem is arranged into three stanzas of four lines in iambic tetrameter followed by a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme is ababcc. Her structure or form of the poetry expressed the tone.
Letter from Phillis Wheatley to Obour Tanner, March 21, 1774
She used three primary elements: Christianity, classicism, and hierophantic solar worship. The hierophantic solar worship is what she brought with her from Africa; this is the worship of sun gods (depicting her African culture). As her parents were sun worshipers, it may be why she used so many different words for the sun. For instance, she uses Aurora eight times, Apollo seven, Phoebus twelve, and Sol twice. Shields believes that the word light is significant to her as it marks her African history, a past which she has left physically behind.
He notes that Sun is a homonym for Son, and that Wheatley intended a double reference to Christ. Wheatley also refers to "heav'nly muse" in two of her poems: "To a Clergy Man on the Death of his Lady" and "Isaiah LXIII”, signifying her idea of the Christian deity.
Shields believes that her use of classicism set her work apart from that of her contemporaries. He writes, "Wheatley’s use of classicism distinguishes her work as original and unique and deserves extended treatment." Classicism is the use of language that maintains the formal aspects of language but refuses the norm. Shields sums up Wheatley’s writing by characterizing it as "contemplative and reflective rather than brilliant and shimmering."
Legacy and honors
- With the 1774 publication of Wheatley's bookPoems on Various Subjects,she "became the most famous African on the face of the earth." Voltaire stated in a letter to a friend that Wheatley had proved that black people could write poetry. John Paul Jones asked a fellow officer to deliver some of his personal writings to "Phillis the African favorite of the Nine (muses) and Apollo." She was honored by many of America's founding fathers, including George Washington.
- Critics consider her work fundamental to the genre of African American literature. She is honored as the first African American woman to publish a book and the first to make a living from her writing.
- In 1920 the new YWCA building in Lexington, Kentucky was dedicated as the "Phyllis Wheatley Branch." Now adapted as an apartment building, it still stands at the corner of Upper and Fourth streets. The cornerstone identifying it as the Phyllis Wheatley Branch is visible on the front.
- Buildings have been named for her at the University of Massachusetts Boston and at Norfolk State University in Norfolk, Virginia.
- In 2002, the scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Phillis Wheatley as one of his 100 Greatest African Americans.
Poems by Phillis Wheatley
- "An Address to the Atheist" and "An Address to the Deist," 1767
- "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty" 1768
- "Atheism," July 1769
- "An Elegaic Poem On the Death of that Celebrated Divine, and Eminent Servant of Jesus Christ, the Reverend and Learned Mr. George Whitefield," 1771
- "A Poem of the Death of Charles Eliot ...," 1 September 1772
- Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral(1773; reprinted 1802)
- "To His Honor the Lieutenant Governor on the death of his Lady," 24 March 1773
- "An Elegy, To Miss Mary Moorhead, On the Death of her Father, The Rev. Mr. John Moorhead," 1773
- "An Elegy, Sacred to the Memory of the Great Divine, the Reverend and the Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper," 1784
- "Liberty and Peace, A Poem" 1784
- One of her last poems was dedicated to George Washington.
- Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and Slave(Boston: Geo. W. Light, 1834), also by Margaretta Matilda Odell
- Revolutionary poet
The Slave poet brought to you by Paris-based African American painter Ealy Mays
REFERENCES / SOURCES / LINKS
- Phillis Wheatley: America's Second Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathersby Henry Louis Gates, Basic Civitas Books, 2003, page 5.
- Women's Political and Social Thought: An Anthologyby Hilda L. Smith, Indiana University Press, 2000, page 123.
- Carretta, Vincent.Complete Writings by Phillis Wheatley,Penguin Books; New York, New York. 2001.
- Odell, Margaretta M. Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and a Slave. Boston: Geo. W. Light, 1834.
- Doak, Robin S.Phillis Wheatley: Slave and Poet,Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2007
- Doak (2007), Phillis Wheatley
- Phillis Wheatley page, comments onPoems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, University of Delaware, accessed Oct. 5, 2007
- Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience,edited by Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah, Basic Civitas Books, 1999, page 1171.
- Ellis Cashmore, review ofThe Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, Nellie Y. McKay and Henry Louis Gates, eds.,New Statesman, April 25, 1997.
- Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism,American Literature52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 101.
- Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism." American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 100.
- Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism",American Literature52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 103.
- Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism",American Literature52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., p. 102.
- Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism",American Literature52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 98.
- Henry Louis Gates,The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers,Basic Civitas Books, p. 33.
- Gates (2003), Trials, p. 5
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002).100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia,New York: Prometheus Books.ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- Further reading
- Wheatley, Phyllis (1988). John C. Shields. ed.The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley. New York: Oxford University Press.ISBN 0-19-506085-7
- Wheatley, Phyllis (2001). Vincent Carretta. ed.Complete Writings. New York: Penguin Books.ISBN 0-14-042430-X
- Borland, (1968).Phillis Wheatley: Young Colonial Poet. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
- Carretta, Vincent (2011).Phillis Wheatley: Biography of A Genius in BondageAthens: University of Georgia Press.ISBN 978-0-8203-3338-0
- Gates, Henry Louis Jr. (2003).The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters With the Founding Fathers,New York: Basic Civitas Books.ISBN 978-0-465-01850-5
- Richmond, M. A. (1988).Phillis Wheatley. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.ISBN 1-55546-683-4
- Abcarian, Richard and Marvin Klotz. "Phillis Wheatley," InLiterature: The Human Experience, 9th edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006: 1606.
- Bassard, Katherine Clay (1999).Spiritual Interrogations: Culture, Gender, and Community in Early African American Women's Writing,Princeton: Princeton University Press.ISBN 0-691-01639-9
- Langley, April C. E. (2008).The Black Aesthetic Unbound: Theorizing the Dilemma of Eighteenth-century African American Literature. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.ISBN 978-0-8142-1077-2
- Ogude, S. E. (1983).Genius in Bondage: A Study of the Origins of African Literature in English. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press.ISBN 978-136-048-8
- Reising, Russel J. (1996).Loose Ends: Closure and Crisis in the American Social Text. Durham: Duke University Press.ISBN 0-8223-1887-3
- Robinson, William Henry (1981).Phillis Wheatley: A Bio-bibliography. Boston: GK Hall.ISBN 0-8161-8318-X
- Robinson, William Henry (1982).Critical Essays on Phillis Wheatley. Boston: GK Hall.ISBN 0-8161-8336-8
- Robinson, William Henry (1984).Phillis Wheatley and Her Writings. New York: Garland.ISBN 0-8240-9346-1
- Shockley, Ann Allen (1988).Afro-American Women Writers, 1746-1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide. Boston: GK Hall.ISBN 0-452-00981-2
- External links
- Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:Phillis Wheatley
- Wikimedia Commons has media related to:Phillis Wheatley
- Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Phillis Wheatley
- Works by Phillis Wheatley a tProject Gutenberg
- Phillis Wheatleyon AALBC.com
- Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and a Slave.Boston: Published by Geo. W. Light, 1834.
- Phillis Wheatley at the Open Directory Project
- JMU site with her poems
- Jupiter Hammon's Poem to Phillis Wheatley
- Phillis Wheatley biography atPoets.org
- Power Writers
- A Geo-Biography of Phillis Wheatley on Google Earth
- Phillis Wheatley: Precursor of American Abolitionism
- Phillis Wheatley, Slave Poet of Colonial America: a story of her life
- Phillis Wheatley
- The African American Registry
- Phillis Wheatley
- History in Woman – Phillis Wheatley
- Poems on Various Subjects Full-text searchable online at University of South Carolina libraries