Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey  1924
Marcus Garvey in 1924

We do not want all the Negroes in Africa.  Some are no good here, and naturally will be no good there

--Marcus Garvey, circa 1918, in response to suggestions that he wanted to take all black people back to Africa

  

Marcus Garvey, “Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH” (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the black nationalism and the Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League(UNIA-ACL).  He also founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.

Marcus Garvey Parade Harlem

Marcus Garvey Parade, Harlem

Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince HallMartin DelanyEdward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs.  Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa.  This was known as Garveyism.  Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet).  The intent of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it.  Garvey's essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World titled "African Fundamentalism" where he wrote: "Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… to let us hold together under all climes and in every country…"

Marcus Garvey with Potentate Gabriel M Johnson of Liberia 

Marcus Garvey with Potentate Gabriel M. Johnson of Liberia, Supreme Deputy G.O. Marke of Sierra Leone, and other UNIA leaders review the parade opening the 1922 UNIA convention, New York City (Courtesy The Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers Project, UCLA)

Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica to Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr., a mason, and Sarah Jane Richards, a domestic worker.  Of eleven siblings, only Marcus and his sister Indiana survived until maturity.  Garvey's father was known to have a large library, and it was from his father that Marcus gained his love for reading.  He also attended the elementary schools in St. Ann's Bay during his youth.  Sometime in 1900, Garvey entered into an apprenticeship with his uncle, Alfred Burrowes, who also had an extensive library, of which young Marcus made good use.

Marcus Garvey with Drew Ali

Marcus Garvey with Drew Ali in a UNIA Parade

In 1910 Garvey left Jamaica and began traveling throughout the Central American region. He lived in Costa Rica for several months, where he worked as a time-keeper on a banana plantation.  He began work as editor for a daily newspaper titled La Nacionale in 1911.  Later that year, he moved to Colón, Panama, where he edited a biweekly newspaper before returning to Jamaica in 1912.  After years of working in the Caribbean, Garvey left Jamaica to live in London from 1912 to 1914, where he attended Birkbeck College taking classes in Law and Philosophy, worked for the African Times and Orient Review, published by Dusé Mohamed Ali, and he sometimes spoke at Hyde Park's Speakers' Corner.  Garvey's philosophy was influenced by Booker T. WashingtonMartin Delany, and Henry McNeal Turner.  It is said that Dusé Mohamed Ali's influence shaped Garvey's speeches, and led him to organize the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica in 1914 (Vincent, 1971).  It has been suggested that the UNIA motto, "One God, One Aim, One Destiny", originated from Dusé Ali's Islamic influence on Garvey (Rashid, 2002).  Garvey named the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League. 

Marcus Garvey circa 1921

Marcus Garvey, circa 1921, in Belize

After corresponding with Booker T. Washington, Garvey arrived in the U.S. on 23 March 1916 aboard the S.S. Tallac to give a lecture tour and to raise funds to establish a school in Jamaica modeled after Washington's Tuskegee Institute.  Garvey visited Tuskegee, and then met with a number of black leaders.  After moving to New York, he found work as a printer by day.  He was influenced by Hubert Harrison.  At night he would speak on street corners, much like he did in London's Hyde Park.  It was then that Garvey perceived a leadership vacuum among people of African ancestry.  On 9 May 1916, he held his first public lecture in New York City at St Mark's Church in-the-Bowery and undertook a 38-state speaking tour.  

In May 1917, Garvey and thirteen others formed the first UNIA division outside Jamaica and began advancing ideas to promote social, political, and economic freedom for blacks.  On July 2nd, the East St. Louis riots broke out.  On July 8th, Garvey delivered an address, titled "The Conspiracy of the East St. Louis Riots", at Lafayette Hall in Harlem.  During the speech, he declared the riot was "one of the bloodiest outrages against mankind".  By October, rancor within the UNIA had begun to set in.  A split occurred in the Harlem division, with Garvey enlisted to become its leader, although he technically held the same position in Jamaica.

Jamaica

Marcus Garvey's African Corps, 1924

Garvey then set about the business of developing a program to improve the conditions of those of African ancestry "at home and abroad" under UNIA auspices.  On August 17th 1918, he commenced publication of the widely distributed Negro World newspaper.  Garvey worked as an editor without pay until November 1920.  By June 1919 the membership of the organization had grown to over two million.  

On 27 June 1919, the Black Star Line of Delaware was incorporated by the members of the UNIA, with Garvey as President.  By September, it obtained its first ship.  Much fanfare surrounded the inspection of the S.S. Yarmouth and its rechristening as the S.S. Frederick Douglass on September 14th  1919.  Such a rapid accomplishment garnered widespread attention.

 Marcus Garvey Negro World printed The Declaration of Rights

Marcus Garvey’s Negro World printed The Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World and called for a “Constitution of Negro Liberty” 

Edwin P. Kilroe, Assistant District Attorney in the New York District Attorney's office began an investigation into the activities of the UNIA but didn't find any evidence of wrongdoing or mismanagement.  After being called to Kilroe's office numerous times, Marcus Garvey wrote an editorial on Kilroe's activities for the Negro World.  Garvey was arrested and indicted for criminal libel in relation to the article but charges were dismissed after Garvey published a retraction.  While in his Harlem office at 56 West 156th Street on October 14th 1919, Garvey received a visit from George Tyler, who told him that Kilroe "had sent him to get Garvey”.  Tyler then pulled a .38-caliber revolver and fired four shots, wounding Garvey in the right leg and scalp.  Garvey was taken to the hospital and Tyler arrested.  The next day, it was revealed that Tyler had 'committed suicide' by leaping from the third tier of the Harlem jail as he was being taken to his arraignment.  By August 1920, the UNIA claimed four million members.  That month, the International Convention of the UNIA was held.  With delegates from all over the world in attendance, over 25,000 people filled Madison Square Garden on 1 August 1920 to hear Garvey speak.

Garvey Speak

Marcus Garvey and members in a U.N.I.A. Parade

Another of Garvey's ventures was the Negro Factories Corporation. His plan called for creating the infrastructure to manufacture every marketable commodity in every big U.S. industrial center, as well as in Central America, the West Indies, and Africa, and for the facilitation of trade.  Related endeavors included a grocery chain, restaurant, publishing house, and other businesses.

Convinced that blacks should have a permanent homeland in Africa, Garvey sought to develop Liberia.  The Liberia program, launched in 1920, was intended to build colleges, universities, industrial plants, and railroads as part of an industrial base from which to operate.  However, it was abandoned in the mid-1920s after much opposition from European powers with interests in Liberia.  In response to suggestions that he wanted to take all Africans of the Diaspora back to Africa, he wrote, "We do not want all the Negroes in Africa. Some are no good here, and naturally will be no good there."

Marcus Garvey Sisters marching

Marcus Garvey’s Sisters marching in U.N.I.A. parade in Harlem 

 Charge of mail fraud

In a memorandum dated 11 October 1919, J. Edgar Hoover, special assistant to the Attorney General and head of the General Intelligence Division (or "anti-radical division") of The Bureau of Investigation or BOI (forerunner to the the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which was created in 1935), wrote a memorandum to Special Agent Ridgely regarding Marcus Garvey.  In the memo, Hoover wrote that:  "Unfortunately, however, he [Garvey] has not as yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation."

Sometime around November 1919 an investigation by the BOI was begun into the activities of Garvey and the UNIA.  Toward this end, the BOI hired James Edward Amos, Arthur Lowell Brent, Thomas Leon Jefferson, James Wormley Jones, and Earl E. Titus as its first five African-American agents.  Although initial efforts by the BOI were to find grounds upon which to deport Garvey as "an undesirable alien", a charge of mail fraud was brought against Garvey in connection with stock sales of the Black Star Line after the U.S. Post Office and the Attorney General joined the investigation.

Corporation

Garvey, being led away by BOI officers 

The accusation centered on the fact that the corporation had not yet purchased a ship with the name "Phyllis Wheatley".  Although one was pictured with that name emblazoned on its bow on one of the company's stock brochures, it had not actually been purchased by the BSL and still had the name "Orion".  The prosecution produced as evidence a single empty envelope which it claimed contained the brochure.  During the trial, a man known as Benny Dancy testified that he didn't remember what was in the envelope, although he regularly received brochures from the Black Star Line.  

Another witness for the prosecution, Schuyler Cargill, perjured himself after admitting to having been told to mention certain dates in his testimony by Chief Prosecutor Maxwell S. Mattuck.  Furthermore, he admitted that he could not remember the names of any coworkers in the office, including the timekeeper who punched employees' time cards.  Ultimately, he acknowledged being told to lie by Postal Inspector F.E. Shea.  He said Shea told him to state that he mailed letters containing the purportedly fraudulent brochures.  The Black Star Line did own and operate several ships over the course of its history and was in the process of negotiating for the disputed ship at the time the charges were brought.  Assistant District Attorney, Leo Healy, who had been, before becoming District Attorney, an attorney with Harris McGill and Co., the sellers of the first ship, the S.S. Yarmouth, to the Black Star Line Inc., was also a key witness for the government during the trial.  

Of the four Black Star Line officers charged in connection with the enterprise, only Garvey was found guilty of using the mail service to defraud.  His supporters called the trial fraudulent.  While there were serious accounting irregularities within the Black Star Line and the claims he used to sell Black Star Line stock could be considered misleading, the prosecution was a politically motivated miscarriage of justice, aimed at ridding the United States of Marcus Garvey.

Marcus Garvey Four Black Star Line Steam Ships

S.S. Yarmouth, one of Marcus Garvey's Four Black Star Line Steam Ships 

When the trial ended on June 23rd 1923, Garvey was sentenced to five years in prison. Garvey blamed Jewish jurors and a Jewish federal judge, Julian Mack for his conviction.  He felt they had been biased because of their political objections to his meeting with the acting imperial wizard of the Ku Klux Klan the year before.  In 1928, Garvey told a journalist:  "When they wanted to get me they had a Jewish judge try me, and a Jewish prosecutor.  I would have been freed but two Jews on the jury held out against me ten hours and succeeded in convicting me, whereupon the Jewish judge gave me the maximum penalty."

He initially spent three months in the Tombs Jail (today’s Manhattan Detention Complex) awaiting approval of bail.  While on bail, he continued to maintain his innocence while travelled, spoke, and continued to organized the UNIA.  After numerous attempts at appeal were unsuccessful, he was taken into custody and began serving his sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on February 8th 1925.  Within two days of being in custody, he penned his well known "First Message to the Negroes of the World From Atlanta Prison", wherein he made his famous proclamation: "Look for me in the whirlwind or the storm, look for me all around you, for, with God's grace, I shall come and bring with me countless millions of black slaves who have died in America and the West Indies and the millions in Africa to aid you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and Life." 

The new negro has no fear

Marcus Garvey's U.N.I.A. Parade In Harlem, NY, 1924

Professor Judith Stein has stated, "his politics were on trial."  Garvey's sentence was eventually commuted by President Calvin Coolidge.  Upon his release in November 1927, Garvey was deported via New Orleans to Jamaica, where a large crowd met him at Orrett's Wharf in Kingston.  Though the popularity of the UNIA diminished greatly following Garvey's expulsion, he nevertheless remained committed to his political ideals. 

Legendary Garvey-Du Bois Battle

Garvey Dubois

Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois 

The acrimonious relationship between Garvey and his UNIA and W.E.B. Du Bois and his NAACP was legendary.  Du Bois feared that Garvey's activities would undermine his efforts toward black rights.  That Du Bois and Garvey were also competing for the support and funding from the same sources, made the mutual dislike even more intense.  Du Bois’ beorgeoning NAACP was nowhere near Garvey’s UNIA at time when Garvey’s popularity among blacks soared.   While W.E.B. Du Bois felt that the Black Star Line was 'original and promising', he added that "Marcus Garvey is, without doubt, the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and in the world.  He is either a lunatic or a traitor."

Garvey suspected Du Bois was prejudiced against him because he was a Caribbean native with darker skin. Du Bois’ pedigree and bourgoise tendencies are well documented.  He believed that the liberation of a future black race lied with the "Talented Tenth” , a core elite of intellectuals and leaders.  Garvey on the other hand, could be described by today’s standards as a populist fire-brand, a man of the people who was connected to the masses. Du Bois never hesitated to show his contempt and snobbery towards Marcus Garvey, once derisively describing Garvey as, "a little, fat black man; ugly, but with intelligent eyes and a big head."  Garvey in turn called Du Bois, “purely and simply a ‘white man's Nigger’" and "a little Dutch, a little French, a little Negro … a mulatto … a monstrosity.”   He accused Du Bois of paying conspirators to sabotage the Black Star Line to destroy his reputation.

 Marcus Garvey Selected Writings and Speeches

Marcus Garvey, Selected Writings and Speeches

Garvey recognized the influence of the Ku Klux Klan, and in early 1922, he went to Atlanta, Georgia, for a conference with KKK imperial giant Edward Young Clarke.   This was a mistake which came to cost Garvey a lot of support among some blacks.  Leo H. Healy publicly accused Garvey of being a member of the W.E.B. Du Bois in his testimony during the mail fraud trial.  After his entente with the Klan, a number of African-American leaders appealed to U.S. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty to have Garvey incarcerated.  But according to Garvey, “I regard the Klan, the Anglo-Saxon clubs and White American societies, as far as the Negro is concerned, as better friends of the race than all other groups of hypocritical whites put together.  I like honesty and fair play.  You may call me a Klansman if you will, but, potentially, every white man is a Klansman, as far as the Negro in competition with whites socially, economically and politically is concerned, and there is no use lying.”

Later years

In 1928, Garvey travelled to Geneva to present the “Petition of the Negro Race”.  This petition outlined the worldwide abuse of Africans to the League of Nations.  In September 1929, he founded the People's Political Party (PPP), Jamaica's first modern political party, which focused on workers' rights, education, and aid to the poor.  Also in 1929, Garvey was elected councilor for the Allman Town Division of the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC), a  seat he lost as a result of having to serve a prison sentence for contempt of court.  But, in 1930, he was re-elected, unopposed, along with two other PPP candidates. 

In April 1931, Marcus Garvey launched the Edelweiss Amusement Company.  He set the company up to help artists earn their livelihood from their craft.  Several Jamaican entertainers — Kidd Harold, Ernest Cupidon, Bim & Bam, and Ranny Williams — went on to become popular after receiving initial exposure that the company gave them.  In 1935, Garvey left Jamaica for London.  He lived and worked in London until his death in 1940.  During these last five years, Garvey remained active and in touch with events in war-torn Ethiopia (then known as Abyssinia) and in the West Indies.  In 1937, he wrote the poem “Ras Nasibu Of Ogaden” in honor of Ethiopian Army Commander (RasNasibu Emmanual.  In 1938, he gave evidence before the West Indian Royal Commission on conditions there.  Also in 1938 he set up the School of African Philosophy in Toronto to train UNIA leaders.  He continued to work on the magazine “The Black Man”.

Garvey Kojo Tovalou

Marcus Garvey (right) with Prince Kojo Tovalou-Houenou of Dahomey (center), called the "Garvey of Africa", and George O. Marke (left) in 1924 

In 1937, a group of Garvey's rivals called the "Peace Movement of Ethiopia", openly collaborated with the United States Senator from Mississippi, Theodore Bilbo, in the promotion of a repatriation scheme introduced in the US Congress as the Greater Liberia Act.  In the Senate, Bilbo was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.  Bilbo, an outspoken supporter of segregation and white supremacy and, attracted by the ideas of black separatists like Garvey, proposed an amendment to the federal work-relief bill on 6 June 1938, proposing to ‘deport’ 12 million black Americans to Liberia at federal expense to relieve unemployment.  He took the time to write a book titled "Take Your Choice, Separation or Mongrelization", advocating the idea.  Garvey praised him in return, saying that Bilbo had "done wonderfully well for the Negro".   During this period, Evangeline Rondon Paterson, the future grandmother of the 55th Governor of New York State, David Paterson, served as his secretary.

Death

On 10 June 1940, Garvey died after two strokes, putatively after reading a mistaken, and negative, obituary of himself in the Chicago Defender which stated, in part, that Garvey died "broke, alone and unpopular".  Because of travel restrictions during World War II, he was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery in London.  Rumours claimed that Garvey was in fact poisoned on a boat on which he was travelling and that was where and how he actually died.  In 1964, his remains were exhumed and taken to Jamaica.  On 15 November 1964, the government of Jamaica, having proclaimed him Jamaica's first national hero, re-interred him at a shrine in National Heroes Park.

Personal life

Marcus Garvey was married twice: to Jamaican Pan-African activist Amy Ashwood (married 1919, divorced 1922), who worked with him in the early years of UNIA, then to the Jamaican journalist and publisher Amy Jacques (married 1922).  The latter was mother to his two sons, Marcus III (born 17 September 1930) and Julius.

unia flag

The UNIA flag uses three colors: red, black and green.

Works by Marcus Garvey

  • The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Edited by Amy Jacques Garvey. 412 pages. Majority Press; Centennial edition, 1 November 1986.ISBN 0-912469-24-2. Avery edition.ISBN 0-405-01873-8.
  • Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy by Marcus Garvey.Edited by Tony Martin. Foreword by Hon. Charles L. James, president- general, Universal Negro Improvement Association. 212 pages. Majority Press, 1 March 1986. ISBN 0-912469-19-6.
  • The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey.Compiled and edited by Tony Martin. 123 pages. Majority Press, 1 June 1983. ISBN 0-912469-02-1.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor.The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers.Vols. I-VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983- (ongoing). 1146 pages. University of California Press, 1 May 1991. ISBN 0-520-07208-1.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor.The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans 1921-1922.740 pages. University of California Press, 1 February 1996. ISBN 0-520-20211-2.

Legacy / Influence

Schools, colleges, highways, and buildings in Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and the United States have been named in his honor.  The UNIA red, black, and green flag has been adopted as the Black Liberation Flag.  Since 1980, Garvey's bust has been housed in the Organization of American States' Hall of Heroes in Washington, D.C.  Malcolm X's parents, Earl and Louise Little, met at a UNIA convention in Montreal.  Earl was the president of the UNIA division in OmahaNebraska and sold the Negro World newspaper, for which Louise covered UNIA activities.

Kwame Nkrumah named the national shipping line of Ghana the Black Star Line in honor of Garvey and the UNIA.  Nkrumah also named the national soccer team the Black Stars as well. The black star at the center of Ghana's flag is also inspired by the Black Star.

ghana

Flag of Ghana

During a trip to Jamaica, Martin Luther King and his wife Coretta Scott King visited the shrine of Marcus Garvey on 20 June 1965 and laid a wreath.  In a speech Dr. King told the audience that Garvey, "was the first man of color to lead and develop a mass movement.  He was the first man on a mass scale and level to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny.  And make the Negro feel he was somebody."

Dr. King was a posthumous recipient of the first Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights on 10 December 1968 issued by the Jamaican Government and presented to King's widow.  In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Marcus Garvey on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.

The Obama Administration declined to pardon Garvey in 2011, writing that 'its policy is not to consider requests for posthumous pardons'.

Rastafari and Garvey

Rastafarians consider Garvey a religious prophet, and sometimes even the reincarnation of Saint John the Baptist. This is partly because of his frequent statements uttered in speeches throughout the 1920s, usually along the lines of "Look to Africa, when a black king shall be crowned for the day of deliverance is at hand!"

garvey salasie

Marcus Garvey, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

His beliefs deeply influenced the Rastafari, who took his statements as a prophecy of the crowning of Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia.  Early Rastas were associated with his Back-to-Africa movement in Jamaica.  This early Rastafari movement was also influenced by a separate, proto-Rasta movement known as the Afro-Athlican Church that was outlined in a religious text known as the Holy Piby — where Garvey was proclaimed to be a prophet as well.  Garvey himself never identified with the Rastafari movement, and was, in fact, raised as a Methodist who went on to become a Roman Catholic.

 rastafarian movement

Rastafarian movement

Main doctrines: Jah · Afrocentrism · Ital ·Zion · Cannabis use

Central figures: Haile Selassie I · Jesus ·Menen Asfaw · Marcus Garvey

Key scriptures: Bible · Kebra Nagast · The Promise Key · Holy Piby · My Life and Ethiopia's Progress ·Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy

Branches and festivals: Mansions · in United States ·Shashamane · Groundation Day · Reasoning

Notable individuals: Leonard Howell · Joseph Hibbert · Mortimer Planno ·Vernon Carrington · Charles Edwards · Bob Marley · Peter Tosh

Vocabulary · Persecution ·Dreadlocks · Reggae ·Ethiopian Christianity · Index of Rastafarian articles

Memorials

There are a number of memorials worldwide which honor Marcus Garvey.  Most of them are in Jamaica and the United States; others are in Canada, England, and several nations in Africa.

A Jamaican 20 dollar coin shows Marcus Garvey on its face

A Jamaican 20 dollar coin shows Marcus Garvey on its face.

 

 

The legend of Marcus Garvey, brought to you by Paris-based Texas painter Ealy Mays

 

REFERENCES / SOURCES / LINKS


 Books

  • Burkett, Randall K.Garveyism as a Religious Movement: The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion.Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press and American Theological Library Association, 1978.
  • Campbell, Horace.Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney.Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1987.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, editor.Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa.With assistance from Amy Jacques Garvey. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.
  • Cronon, Edmund David.Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association.Madison:University of Wisconsin Press, 1955, reprinted 1969 and 2007.
  • Garvey, Amy Jacques,Garvey andGarveyism.London: Collier-MacMillan, 1963, 1968.
  • Grant, Colin.Negro with a Hat, The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and his Dream of Mother Africa., London: Jonathan Cape, 2008.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor.Marcus Garvey, Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Hill, Robert A.The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Vols. I–VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983– (ongoing).
  • James, Winston.Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America.London: Verso, 1998.
  • Kornweibel Jr., Theodore.Seeing Red: Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy 1919-1925.Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998.
  • Lemelle, Sidney, and Robin D. G. Kelley.Imagining Home: Class, Culture, and Nationalism in the African Diaspora.London: Verso, 1994.
  • Lewis, Rupert.Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1988.
  • Lewis, Rupert, and Bryan, Patrick, eds.Garvey: His Work and Impact.Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1988.
  • Lewis, Rupert, and Maureen Warner-Lewis.Garvey: Africa, Europe, The Americas. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1986, 1994.
  • Manoedi, M. Korete.Garvey and Africa.New York: New York Age Press, 1922.
  • Martin, Tony.Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggle of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Martin, Tony.Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance.Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony.African Fundamentalism: A Literary and Cultural Anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance.Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983, 1991.
  • Martin, Tony.Marcus Garvey: Hero.Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony.The Pan-African Connection: From Slavery to Garvey and Beyond.Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony.The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey.Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Smith-Irvin, Jeannette.Marcus Garvey's Footsoldiers of the Universal Negro Improvement Association.Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1989.
  • Solomon, Mark.The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African-Americans, 1917–1936.Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.
  • Stein, Judith.The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986.
  • Tolbert, Emory J.The UNIA and Black Los Angeles.Los Angeles: Center of Afro-American Studies, University of California, 1980.
  • Vincent, Theodore.Black Power and the Garvey Movement. Berkeley, Calif.: Ramparts Press, 1971.
  • Marcus Garvey: A Controversial Figure in the History of Pan-Africanism by Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini for the Journal of Pan African Studies

External links

Pan-Africanism

Black nationalism Organizations

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